ISOLATION ROOMS are used in hospital and healthcare facilities as a means of controlling the spread of contagious diseases (e.g. Covid 19, Smallpox and Ebola virus) from a patient to other patients, healthcare workers and visitors. They are also used as a protective measure for patients with a low immune system.
How do Isolation Rooms prevent cross-contamination?
Patient isolation is achieved using one or more of the following methods:
• Control of the quantity and quality of the intake or exhaust air.
• Maintain different air pressures between adjacent areas.
• Diluting infectious particles with large air volumes.
• Air filtration by using Hepa filters on the supply air.
How many types of Isolation Rooms are there?
Isolation Rooms can be designed in one of three ways with regard to pressure profiles. In some countries the isolation rooms are multifunctional whereby the pressure profiles can be altered to suit the specific requirements at the time. The various configurations are described below.
This is where the patient’s bedroom is maintained at a higher pressure than the adjoining anteroom or ensuite. The patient here would typically have a low immune system and is extremely vulnerable to infection from contaminated airborne particles.
Positive Pressure Room
This is where the patient’s bedroom is maintained at a lower pressure than the adjoining anteroom. The patient here would typically have a contagious disease or condition that may infect healthcare workers or visitors.
Negative Pressure Room
Equal Pressure Room
This is where the patient’s bedroom is maintained at the same pressure as the adjacent corridor and is separated by a positively pressurised lobby. This type of isolation room is becoming more common because it achieves the same as the Positive and Negative type.